Terms & Conditions
If any member of your party is disabled or has Reduced Mobility, we ask that you complete a Checklist and return it to us as soon as possible so that we are able to help with their needs and provide the necessary service. Download ABTA Checklist >
The following terms and conditions (‘booking conditions’) form the basis of your contract with Voyages Jules Verne. Please read them carefully as they set out our respective rights and obligations. By asking us to confirm your booking, we are entitled to assume that you have had the opportunity to read and have read these terms and conditions and agree to them. Except where otherwise stated, these booking conditions only apply to holiday arrangements which you book with us in the UK and which we agree to make, provide or perform (as applicable) as part of our contract with you. All references in these booking conditions to ‘holiday’, ‘booking’, ‘contract’, ‘package’, ‘tour’ or ‘arrangements’ mean such holiday arrangements unless otherwise stated. In these booking conditions, ‘you’ and ‘your’ means all persons named on the booking (including anyone who is added or substituted at a later date) or any of them, as the context requires and ‘lead name’ means the person who makes the booking. ‘We’, ‘us’ and ‘our’ means Voyages Jules Verne.
- The Booking Agreement
- The Licence Holder
- To Make a Booking
- Tour Balance
- To Change Your Booking
- To Cancel Your Booking
- Cancellation of Tours by Us
- Changes to the Scheduled Programme
- Important Notes
- Fitness to Travel
- Prices & Rates of Exchange
- Voyages Jules Verne's Responsibility
- Flights & Airlines
- Brochure Descriptions & Prices
The Booking Agreement
Any contract between you and us is subject to these Booking Conditions. The contract shall be governed by and construed in accordance with English law and is subject to the jurisdiction of the Courts of England and Wales. Alternatively it shall be governed by and construed in accordance with the law of Scotland or the law of Northern Ireland and shall be subject to the jurisdiction of the Courts of those countries respectively if you are domiciled there.
Your Financial Protection
The Package Travel, Package Holidays and Package Tours Regulations 1992 require us to provide security for the monies that you pay for the package holidays booked and for your repatriation in the event of our insolvency.
We hold an Air Travel Organiser’s Licence issued by the Civil Aviation Authority (ATOL number 0132, Kuoni Travel Ltd). When you buy an ATOL protected flight or flight inclusive holiday* from us you will receive an ATOL Certificate. This lists what is financially protected, where you can get information on what this means for you and who to contact if things go wrong. For further information visit the ATOL website at www.atol.org.uk *The air inclusive holidays and flights we arrange are ATOL protected providing either the person who pays for the booking is present in the UK when the booking is made or the first leg of any flight or flights we arrange for you commences in the UK.
We, or the suppliers identified on your ATOL Certificate, will provide you with the services listed on the ATOL Certificate (or a suitable alternative). In some cases, where neither we nor the supplier are able to do so for reasons of insolvency, an alternative ATOL holder may provide you with the services you have bought or a suitable alternative (at no extra cost to you). You agree to accept that in those circumstances the alternative ATOL holder will perform those obligations and you agree to pay any money outstanding to be paid by you under your contract to that alternative ATOL holder. However, you also agree that in some cases it will not be possible to appoint an alternative ATOL holder, in which case you will be entitled to make a claim under the ATOL scheme (or your credit card issuer where applicable).
If we, or the suppliers identified on your ATOL certificate, are unable to provide the services listed (or a suitable alternative, through an alternative ATOL holder or otherwise) for reasons of insolvency, the Trustees of the Air Travel Trust may make a payment to (or confer a benefit on) you under the ATOL scheme. You agree that in return for such a payment or benefit you assign absolutely to those Trustees any claims which you have or may have arising out of or relating to the non-provision of the services, including any claim against us, the travel agent (or your credit card issuer where applicable). You also agree that any such claims may be re-assigned to another body, if that other body has paid sums you have claimed under the ATOL scheme.
We are also a member of ABTA (ABTA Number V1661). When you buy a package holiday that does not include a flight, protection is provided by way of a bond held by ABTA The Travel Association. Please go to www.abta.com for a copy of the guide to ABTA’s scheme of Financial Protection.
If you book arrangements other than a flight or package holiday (e.g. accommodation only), the financial protection referred to above does not apply.
To Make a Booking
To make a booking please telephone us (0845 166 7000) at which time you will be asked to send the appropriate non-refundable deposit of £175 per person or full payment (A higher, variable deposit may apply to certain programmes. Details will be advised at time of booking). Payment may be made by credit/debit card or by cheque. Cheques should be made payable to Voyages Jules Verne. On receipt of your deposit, we will send you a confirmation/ invoice. It is important to check the details on the invoice when you receive it. If any details appear to be incorrect or incomplete, please contact us immediately as it may not be possible to make changes later. We regret we cannot accept any liability if we are not notified of any inaccuracy (for which we are responsible) in any document within 10 days of our sending it out (5 days for tickets). We will do our best to rectify any mistake notified to us outside these time limits but you must meet any costs involved in doing so.
The balance due must be paid to us at least 61 days before you travel. If this is not done then we reserve the right to treat your booking as cancelled by you and make cancellation charges. If you ask us not to cancel, promising to make payment but failing to do so, you must pay the cancellation charges depending on the date we reasonably treat your booking as cancelled. Your failure to pay the balance in these circumstances could result in cancellation charges of up to 100% of the final invoice. If you book 61 days or less before departure, then the full amount must be paid when you book. Balance payments made by credit card (e.g. MasterCard, Visa Credit) and non-UK debit cards are subject to a 2% transaction charge. There is no transaction charge if you pay by UK debit card (e.g. Maestro, Visa Debit).
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To Change Your Booking
Change or addition to your booking:
If you want to change any part of your holiday arrangements after the invoice has been issued, we will do our best to make the change, but it may not be possible. Any request for changes must be made by the person who made the original booking. We may ask you to put these in writing. If it is possible to make the change, it will be subject to an administration charge of £30 per person, and payment of any further costs incurred as a result of the change such as the cost of replacement visa, re – ticketing costs of scheduled transport, costs associated with changed group numbers. Scheduled airlines normally regard name changes as a cancellation and rebooking, and any alteration may incur a 100% cancellation charge in respect of the air fare. If it is not possible for us to make changes for whatever reason, you have the choice of proceeding with the holiday as originally booked, or of cancelling and paying cancellation charges in accordance with the scale shown below. If any change can be made, you must check whether it will invalidate your visa or insurance cover, in which case it may be necessary to take out alternative, additional or new cover depending on the circumstances. Please note that it will not be possible to make changes within 28 days of your scheduled departure date.
Name Spellings: It is essential that the names of all passengers you give us at the time of booking are exactly the names (including forenames) that are shown on those persons’ passports. In many cases, and in order to guarantee your special airfare, tickets must be issued within two weeks of your date of booking and any subsequent changes, including
changes to the spelling of names, amendments and cancellations, will incur costs up to the full value of the air ticket, regardless of the time period.
Name Changes (where you transfer your booking to another person): These may be made up to 7 days prior to departure but will similarly incur the costs of changing the name on the air ticket in addition to the full cost of the holiday and any other alteration charges equivalent to what it may cost us at the time, provided that any requisite replacement visas can be obtained. If not, normal cancellation charges will apply. The cost of new visas and insurance (where applicable) will also be payable. An administration charge will be made of £50 per person for requests made more than 61days before departure, and £100 per person within 61 days before departure.
To Cancel Your Booking
Should you wish to cancel your tour, the lead name must notify us directly in writing as soon as possible. Any notification by telephone must also be confirmed in writing or by e-mail within 24-hours by the lead name. Cancellation will take effect from the day we are notified provided that written confirmation is received by us within 24-hours of the original notification. Visa charges will not be refundable once the request has been lodged with the Embassy.
The scale of cancellation charges detailed is calculated as a percentage of your invoice according to the number of days prior to departure that written notice of cancellation is received by us:
Prior to Departure Date:
|Prior to Departure Date||Cancellation Charges|
|More than 60 days||Deposit only|
|42 – 60 days||50% or deposit, whichever is higher|
|33 – 41 days||60% or deposit, whichever is higher|
|15 – 32 days||90% of final invoice|
|Less than 15 days||100% of final invoice|
Cancellation of Tours by Us
In the unlikely circumstances of cancellation of a tour or holiday by us we will offer you the choice of an alternative tour of equivalent quality (if available) or a tour of lower quality if you require it (if available) in which case we will refund to you the difference in price between the original booking and the tour of lower quality; or we will make you a prompt refund of any monies paid by you to us under the original booking.
Tours are based on a minimum number of passengers, generally a number under 8 but variable according to destination, in order to operate. Should this not be reached, or become unlikely to be reached, we reserve the right to continue to operate (with local guides instead of a tour manager if one has been advertised) or, up to 8 weeks prior to departure, to cancel this tour for all passengers including those booked under Independent Arrival. In these circumstances we would not be liable to pay you any compensation or make refunds for associated costs such as visas, independently booked regional or international flights, parking, airport hotels etc.
In the event that it is necessary for us to cancel or make a significant change to a tour in other circumstances, we will offer compensation to you, where appropriate, as detailed below. A change of flight time of less than 12 hours, airline (except where otherwise stated), type of aircraft (if advised) or destination airport, change of London airport, or changes of hotel to ones of similar price or category, will all be treated as minor changes.
Compensation amount per person for period prior to departure date when a cancellation or significant change is notified by us:
|Period prior to departure date||Compensation|
|More than 61 days||NIL|
|61 – 42 days||£20|
|41 - 15 days||£35|
|14 - 0 days||£50|
We are not liable to pay compensation to you where:
a) The package is cancelled because the number of persons who agree to take it is less than the minimum number of persons required as set out above and we have provided advice of the cancellation at least 61 days prior to the departure date of your tour or holiday, or
Changes to the Scheduled Programme
The tours scheduled in our brochure are planned many
months in advance and sometimes changes may be
necessary although we would normally expect to be
able to provide you with the services confirmed by us
in respect of your original booking.
The arrangements featured in our brochure are by their very nature complex with services from many different airlines, hotels and transportation companies. Due to demand for flights, hotels and accommodation and transportation over which we have no control, it is not always possible to guarantee flight or other transport departures, the aircraft type or other type of transportation, or accommodation. Flight or other transportation timings and carriers
are stated to you for guidance only. Final details will be shown on your tickets or sent with your
Joining Instructions, approximately two weeks prior to travel. We reserve the right to make changes. We will make every effort to provide as much advance notification as possible but we feel it is only fair to warn you of possible variations. Where these are significant you may be entitled to compensation as set out above.
Force majeure changes or cancellation
We may have to make changes to your tour or holiday in the event of force majeure and if we have to cancel or change your tour or holiday in any way because of this, we will not be liable to pay compensation to you. Force majeure is for example, circumstances where performance and/or prompt performance is prevented by war, threat of war, riot, civil disturbance, natural or nuclear disasters, industrial dispute (defined below), terrorist activity, fire, or adverse weather conditions. Industrial dispute is defined as a dispute between a person, other than ourselves, supplying services comprised in a package holiday and (a) his employee and/or (b) any other person whose services affect the performance of the package holiday, which we cannot reasonably be expected to overcome by substituting comparable alternative arrangements. Very rarely, we may be obliged by ‘force majeure’ to change or terminate your holiday after departure but before the scheduled end of your time away. This is extremely unlikely but if this situation does occur, we regret we will be unable to make any refunds (unless we obtain any refunds from our suppliers), pay you any compensation or meet any costs or expenses you incur as a result.
In accordance with EU regulations we are required to advise you of the actual air carrier operating your flight/connecting flight/transfer. We do this by listing carriers to be used or likely to be used on the relevant brochure pages and/or your holiday confirmation invoice.
Any changes to the actual airline after you have received your tickets will be notified to you as soon as possible and in all cases at check – in or at the boarding gate. Such a change is deemed to be a minor change.
All itineraries that involve the use of rail
travel are subject to amendment according to the
conditions of carriage of the railways board or other agency which governs rail travel in the country in which the railway journey is undertaken. Delays may occur depending on the priority given to the passage of the train upon which you are travelling because the train is required to give way to other railway traffic. In particular where the train is crossing a border between
two countries, your attention is drawn to the section headed ‘Border Crossings’ below.
In some countries lengthy delays
may be experienced at border crossings between two
countries. Such delays are subject to the discretion of the national or local authorities regulating the border crossing. We cannot offer any accurate estimate of the length of such delay and if you require further information you should make your own enquiries.
River Boats and Cruises
All itineraries that include river and coastal cruising are subject to amendment according to river or sea conditions at the time of travel which includes water levels (high and low), weather conditions such as fog and technical issues with locks, bridges and the vessels themselves. Where such variations affect the itinerary a replacement programme by land will be arranged. Most waterways are controlled by statutory authorities who can also impose restrictions without notice.
Accommodation Outside the UK:
The standard of
accommodation, whether in hotels or on rail, ship or
boat, will vary according to the standards available in the country in which the accommodation is being provided and should be judged by the standards of that country. In some countries the standards will be basic and not of the level associated with a conventional package holiday. If you are in any doubt about the suitability to your own requirements of the facilities,
transportation, accommodation or conditions prevailing in any country through which the tour passes, then you should make written enquiry with us as we cannot be held responsible for failure to meet your requirements if these are not made known to us. Whilst every effort will be made to meet reasonable requests, they cannot be guaranteed.
Hotel rooms are generally available between noon and 3pm for check-in and are to be vacated between 10am and noon irrespective of your arrival or departure times, details of which will be confirmed by your hotel. Hotels will generally make provision to secure your
luggage until rooms are available. On occasion it may be possible to obtain day-rooms
subject to availability and extra payment.
Any special request or requirement
which is essential to your booking (such as specific
dietary requirements, wheelchair assistance or special facilities for certain medical conditions) must be made known to us in writing before you book. We will contact our suppliers and the request will only become a term of your contract with us if we confirm in writing that the request can be met and your booking proceeds on that basis. We are also
happy to pass on any other reasonable requests that you may have such as desired location of hotel rooms or airline seats or other requirements as to meals, but they cannot be guaranteed and will not form part of our contract. No compensation will be payable if such
requests are not fulfilled.
Locally Booked Excursions/Activities
Whilst you are away you may be offered the opportunity to buy optional excursions and activities. These are provided by independent local companies, which are neither owned nor controlled by Voyages Jules Verne, and for whom we act only as an agent (if we make a booking for you). If you decide to buy an excursion or activity, your contract will be made with the local company which provides it and it will not form part of your package with Voyages Jules Verne. The contract may be subject to the excursion/activity provider’s terms and conditions, some of which may exclude or limit its liability to you, and will be governed by local law and jurisdiction. We accept no liability for any breach of contract or negligent act or omission of any excursion/activity provider. Some excursions/ activities may contain an element of risk or require a good level of physical fitness, and, if in doubt, you should make direct inquiries with the local provider before deciding to buy and check that you are covered by your travel insurance policy.
Behaviour: If in our reasonable opinion or in the opinion of any airline pilot, hotel manager, tour leader or other person in authority, your behaviour is causing, or is likely to cause, danger, upset or damage to property or persistently affecting the enjoyment of others, we reserve the right to terminate your holiday. Should this happen, no refund or compensation would be paid and we would have no further responsibility for your holiday arrangements including return travel.
Passports and Visas
It is your responsibility to ensure you are in possession of all necessary travel and health documents before departure. All costs incurred in obtaining such documentation must be paid by you. We regret we cannot accept any liability if you are refused entry onto any transport or into any country due to failure on your part to carry all required documentation. If failure to have any necessary travel or other documents results in fines, surcharges or other financial penalty or expenses being imposed on or incurred by us, you will be responsible for reimbursing us accordingly.
Fitness to Travel, Disabilities, and Mobility
Overseas services are not covered by the Equality Act 2010, and facilities that are expected and required in the UK are not available in many of our destinations. If you have a disability or any issue with mobility you should be aware that our tours may involve significant distances, embarkations and disembarkations, visits to places that lack lifts or ramps, and areas of steep or rough terrain. Tours, or parts of tours, may be unsuitable for those with disabilities or restricted mobility. Our World of Wonders brochure and our website contain a guide to the ‘Walking Content’ applied to each tour which indicates the degree of mobility required. Please consider this issue as carefully as we have, ask for our advice, and do not undertake a tour that is unsuited to yourself or another member of your party. Whilst we are committed to making every reasonable adjustment to provide access to our tours for those affected, our escorts and guides are responsible for the progress of the tour and for the tour group as a whole so cannot be relied upon to provide individual support or assistance such as pushing wheelchairs or carrying bags. Should you or any of your party require a carer or assistance with mobility, then you accept responsibility for including a suitably qualified person in your booking.
In making your booking, you confirm that you and all of your party are fit to take this tour, and that you have declared to us any disability or special need which is likely to affect the progress of the tour or the delivery to other travellers. If we reasonably consider that we are unable to properly accommodate the particular needs of the person concerned, we must reserve the right to decline their reservation or, if full details are not given at the time of booking, decline or cancel the reservation when we become aware of these details. You must also promptly advise us when any significant change in the condition or disability occurs or if any such medical condition or disability develops after your booking has been confirmed. If we consider at any time that the tour is unsuitable, we will try to provide alternative arrangements which overcome the issues and will offer them to you at an appropriate cost. Alternatively, we reserve the right to cancel the booking.
Should you or any of your party commence a tour without previously disclosing a disability or special need, and you are unable to take part in the activities or to keep to the daily schedule of the tour group, we reserve the right either to make whatever arrangements and engage whatever additional assistance we deem necessary for you to continue the tour, separately from the group if necessary, or else to make arrangements for your return to the UK without completing the tour. In either case you will be responsible for all additional costs.
It is your responsibility to ensure that you are aware of all recommended and required vaccination and health precautions in good time before departure, and to have any member of your party who may have doubts about their fitness consult with their own doctor.
Prices & Taxes
No Surcharge Guarantee
The price of your tour which
we confirm to you at the time of booking, including any
increases or reductions applied at that time, is fully guaranteed and is not subject to any surcharges.
What the Price Includes or Does Not Include
Details of the items included or not included in the
price are stated on the page of the brochure, leaflet or
advertisement by which the price of the tour and the
itinerary are published. Please therefore refer to the
details separately stated on that page.
Voyages Jules Verne's Responsibility
- Where you do not suffer personal injury or death,
we accept liability should any part of your holiday
arrangements booked with us not be as described in
the brochure from which you have made your booking and not be of a reasonable standard. We will pay you reasonable compensation (limited to a maximum of
three times the amount paid) unless there has been no fault on our part or that of our suppliers and the reason for the failure in your holiday arrangements could not have been foreseen or avoided by us or our suppliers even if all due care had been exercised. We will use this maximum sum to assess the appropriate sum due to you in the circumstances of your particular complaint.
- Should you suffer death or personal injury as a result of
an activity forming part of your holiday arrangements booked
with us, we accept responsibility unless there has been no
fault on our part or that of our suppliers and the cause was
your own fault, the actions of someone unconnected with
your holiday arrangements or one which neither we nor
our suppliers could have anticipated or avoided even with
the exercise of all due care. Where such death or personal injury arises in the course of air travel, rail travel, sea travel or hotel accommodation, the amount of compensation you will receive is limited in accordance with the provisions of any
applicable International Conventions (the 1999 Montreal Convention, the Warsaw Convention as amended by the Hague Protocol in 1955, the 1961 Berne Convention, the 1974 Athens Convention and the 1962 Paris Convention as
amended). Copies of these Conventions may be obtained by writing to us, please allow at least 28 days for the provision of such information.
- Should you suffer death, personal injury or illness as a
result of an activity not forming part of holiday arrangements,
booked with us, we give you advice, guidance and, at our
discretion, financial assistance where appropriate up to a limit
of £5,000. The financial assistance to enable legal action to be
taken against the person responsible for your death, personal
injury or illness. Should you recover any costs against a third
party in respect of such legal action or be insured in respect
of such costs and recover the same via insurers any costs
actually incurred by us for which you are given assistance shall be recoverable from any costs recovered by you. Further, the financial assistance is per booking form, not per person. Any request for assistance under this section must be made within 90 days of the incident occurring.
Should you have a problem, you must notify the Tour Manager/local representatives/local agent who will do whatever he/she can to help you there and then; you may be asked to complete a customer complaint form at the time.
In the unlikely event that you are not satisfied with the actions taken to deal with your complaint and you wish to take the matter further, you must put your complaint in writing to us within 6 weeks of your return giving all the details. We promise to deal with any dispute fairly and promptly within the terms of these conditions. Disputes arising out of, or in connection with this contract which cannot be amicably settled, may (if you so wish) be referred to arbitration under a special scheme which, though devised by arrangement with the Association of British Travel Agents, is administered quite independently by CEDR Solve. The scheme (details of which can be obtained from ABTA) provides for a simple and inexpensive method of arbitration on documents alone with restricted liability on the customer in respect of costs. The scheme does not apply to claims for an amount greater than £5,000 per person. There is also a limit of £25,000 per booking form. Neither does it apply to claims which are solely or mainly in respect of physical injury or illness or of the consequences of such injury or illness. The rules of the Scheme provide that the application for arbitration must be made within 18 months of the date of return from the holiday but in special circumstances it may still be offered outside this period.
Flights & Airlines
We reserve the right to amend the carrier, type of
aircraft or timings on any of the itineraries. When
you travel with an airline, scheduled or otherwise,
the Conditions of Carriage of that airline apply. Some
of these will limit or even exclude liability. These
conditions are the subject of International Agreements
between countries. We can normally advise you of
the Conditions, or copies can be made available upon request.
Voluntary Denied Boarding: On rare occasions
passengers at the airport may be approached by the
airline and offered, with appropriate compensation, a
move to a later flight. If this is accepted you should be
aware that as a result you may incur additional costs for
separate transfer arrangements at your destination.
Flight Delays: Flight timings are provided by airlines.
They are subject to air traffic control restrictions,
weather conditions, the need for constant maintenance
and the ability of passengers to check in on time. There
is no guarantee that the flights will depart at the time
shown either in the brochure, on your invoice or on the tickets. The timings are estimates only. When booking connecting flights, rail or car parking or indeed any arrangements that rely on flight timings, you are strongly advised to allow for possible variations.
In the event of a flight being delayed, be it outward, onward or homeward, the relevant airline will make arrangements, dependent on the time of day and duration of the delay.
Direct Flights:Where a flight is described as direct, this means that no change of aircraft is necessary. Stops may be made en route for re-fuelling or to pick up/set down passengers. We do not however provide details of such stops where applicable in our documentation.
Air Travel: Airline schedules are quoted as known at the time of going to press, but are subject to possible alterations. Details in respect of flight timings, duration of flights
and points of stop-over en route will be sent with your confirmation invoice and with your final travel documents.
Community List: In accordance with EU directive (EC) no. 2111/2005, Article 9, we are required to bring to your attention the existence of a ‘Community List’ which contains details of air carriers that are subject to an operating ban within the EU Community. The Community
List is available for inspection via http://ec.europa.eu/transport/air-ban/list_en.htm
Brochure Descriptions & Prices
Unfortunately, it is inevitable that
some of the prices and details contained within our
brochures may have changed since the brochures
were printed. We must reserve the right to make such
changes. You will be informed about any changes to any
of the relevant details within this brochure when you
book and before you enter into a contract with us as
part of our commitment to quality customer service.
Whilst we endeavour to ensure that the most up-to-date and correct prices are shown on our website and in our brochures, there may on occasion be an incorrect price shown, due to an unfortunate error. When we become aware of any such error, we will endeavour to notify you at the time of booking (if we are then aware of the mistake) or within 7 days of the time of booking, or as soon as reasonably possible. We must reserve the right to cancel the booking if you do not wish to accept the price which is actually applicable to the holiday, in which case you will be given the choice to amend your booking to an alternative holiday at the correct price.
We reserve the right to change any of the services or facilities or prices described in the brochure at any time before a contract is made between us. If there is any change we will tell you before you enter into a contract.
Website Descriptions & Prices
We rigorously check the information about accommodation, resorts, itineraries etc., to ensure it is correct to the best of our knowledge. Advertised web copy descriptions and facilities may change before and after you book. Please check the up to date position at the time of booking. Please bear in mind that hoteliers, restaurateurs, tour guides etc., may wish to maintain or improve their facilities, or even take a break themselves. Flight times, carriers and routes in the brochure are given for guidance only as there may be changes. Final details will be shown on your tickets. Tour, excursion, cruise or safari itineraries may change as a result of local conditions. Circumstances such as these, or weather conditions, time of year or other situations beyond our control etc., may cause some of the amenities we have described to be unavailable or different from those advertised. When we are told of any significant or long term changes we will always endeavour to advise you prior to your departure.
The copyright in the material on this website rests with Voyages Jules Verne, its suppliers and its clients. Your access to it does not imply a licence to reproduce and/or distribute this information. This means that you cannot reproduce or distribute this information. This website is governed and construed in accordance with the Laws of England and is subject to the exclusive jurisdiction of the English Courts.